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  • The American Civil War may be considered an important event not only in the history of nineteenth-century British diplomacy, but also in the history of British political thought.

    Liberty by Trial: John Stuart Mill, the American Civil War and the Ethics of Foreign Intervention

    The American Civil War may be considered an important event not only in the history of nineteenth-century British diplomacy, but also in the history of British political thought.

  • Beyond this fairly typical function, however, the Sphinx is arguably the most visually radical monument constructed in the history of Civil War commemoration. Combining an Anglo-American woman’s face, the body of a lion, and decidedly American and Egyptian symbols, it embodies a racially fused population in the postwar landscape, one in which white and black Americans would work toward a future of what Bigelow called “illimitable progress.”

    The Americanized Sphinx: Civil War Commemoration, Jacob Bigelow and the Sphinx at Mount Auburn

    Beyond this fairly typical function, however, the Sphinx is arguably the most visually radical monument constructed in the history of Civil War commemoration. Combining an Anglo-American woman’s face, the body of a lion, and decidedly American and Egyptian symbols, it embodies a racially fused population in the postwar landscape, one in which white and black Americans would work toward a future of what Bigelow called “illimitable progress.”

  • Susan-Mary Grant looks at the motivations of ordinary citizens to fight their fellow Americans under either the Confederate or the Union flags.

    For God and Country: Why Men Joined Up for the US Civil War

    Susan-Mary Grant looks at the motivations of ordinary citizens to fight their fellow Americans under either the Confederate or the Union flags.

  • When white Northerners objected to the influx of black refugees, military officials relocated thousands to so-called contraband camps in occupied Virginia, including the abandoned Arlington estate of Confederate general Robert E. Lee and his wife, Mary Custis Lee. Black refugees in these camps had difficulty securing adequate housing, food, clothing, and medicine, which sometimes resulted in starvation, disease, and death.

    Refugees During the Civil War

    When white Northerners objected to the influx of black refugees, military officials relocated thousands to so-called contraband camps in occupied Virginia, including the abandoned Arlington estate of Confederate general Robert E. Lee and his wife, Mary Custis Lee. Black refugees in these camps had difficulty securing adequate housing, food, clothing, and medicine, which sometimes resulted in starvation, disease, and death.

  • At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, California occupied a position in the United States that was unique in many ways.

    The Attitude of California to the Civil War

    At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, California occupied a position in the United States that was unique in many ways.

  • The exigencies of war encouraged white women to develop a political outlook and prove their patriotism, in contrast to the antebellum period when they were considered too delicate and pure to become entangled in the public world of politics. Many Confederate women sewed presentation flags for local regiments or became involved in organizations that sponsored every cause from aiding soldiers to supplying hospitals to arming gunboats.

    Women During the Civil War

    The exigencies of war encouraged white women to develop a political outlook and prove their patriotism, in contrast to the antebellum period when they were considered too delicate and pure to become entangled in the public world of politics. Many Confederate women sewed presentation flags for local regiments or became involved in organizations that sponsored every cause from aiding soldiers to supplying hospitals to arming gunboats.

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